Reliable Pharmaceutical ServiceRead chapters2, 4, 5 and 6 of the text and the case studies at the end of these chapters. Then answer the questions about the Rocky Mountain Outfitters and the Reliable Pharmaceutical Service case studies at the end of these chapters. Make your answers short (2-3 sentences).Read chapters 7 and 8 of the text and the case studies at the end of these chapters.Answer the questions about the following case studies at the end of chapter 7 and 8 ? Real Estate Multiple Listing ? State Patrol Ticket Processing System Suggestions and Guidelines: ? Use your own words and Thoughts. Plagirism and/or cheating will result in a grade of Zero. ? Give short answers to each question (not more than 3-4 lines)SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND D ESIGN I N ACH A N G I N GWO R L DJohn W. Satzinger Missouri State UniversityRobert B. Jackson RBJ and AssociatesStephen D. Burd University of New MexicoAustralia ? Brazil ? Japan ? Korea ? Mexico ? Singapore ? Spain ? United Kingdom ? United StatesCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.This ia an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party may be suppressed. Edition review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the over all learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove the contents from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate format, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest.Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fifth Edition John W. Satzinger, Robert B. Jackson, Stephen D. Burd Editor-in-Chief: Alex von Rosenberg Acquisitions Editor: Charles McCormick Product Manager: Kate Hennessy Development Editor: Dan Seiter Editorial Assistant: Bryn Lathrop Marketing Director: Brian Joyner Marketing Manager: Bryant Chrzan Content Project Manager: Matt Hutchinson, GEX Publishing Services Art Director: Marissa Falco Manufacturing Coordinator: Justin Palmeiro Cover Photo: ? Radius Images/RF/PhotoLibrary? 2009 Course Technology, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 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Locate your local office at: international.cengage.com/region Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your lifelong learning solutions, visit course.cengage.com Visit our corporate website at cengage.comPrinted in Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.D E D I C AT I O NTo JoAnn, Brian, Kevin, LaVone, and Arnie?JWS To my immediate and extended family?RBJ To Dee, Amelia, and Alex?SDBCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.BRIEF CONTENTSPART 1: The Systems Analyst Chapter 1 The World of the Information Systems Analyst Chapter Chapter 2 Approaches to System Development 3 The Analyst as a Project Manager2 36 72PART 2: Systems Analysis Activities Chapter 4 Investigating System Requirements Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 5 Modeling System Requirements 6 The Traditional Approach to Requirements 7 The Object-Oriented Approach to Requirements 8 Evaluating Alternatives for Requirements, Environment, and Implementation116 158 202 238 280PART 3: Systems Design Tasks Chapter 9 Elements of Systems Design Chapter 10 The Traditional Approach to Design Chapter 11 Object-Oriented Design: Principles Chapter 12 Object-Oriented Design: Use Case Realizations Chapter 13 Designing Databases Chapter 14 Designing the User Interface Chapter 15 Designing System Interfaces, Controls, and Security314 352 386 428 486 528 568PART 4: Implementation and Support Chapter 16 Making the System Operational Chapter 17 Current Trends in System Development Index616 660 701OnlineSupplemental Web Resources Online Supplemental Chapter 1 Packages and Enterprise Resource Planning Online Appendices A, B, C, D, and E GlossaryivCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTS Note that more material is available at the book?s Web site, including an online chapter and appendices. For information, see the Student Companion Web Site section in this preface.PART 1 The Systems Analyst Chapter 1 The World of the Information Systems Analyst A Systems Analyst at Consolidated Refineries Overview The Analyst as a Business Problem Solver Systems That Solve Business Problems Required Skills of the Systems Analyst Analysis-Related Careers The Analyst?s Role in Strategic Planning Rocky Mountain Outfitters and Its Strategic Information Systems Plan The Analyst as a System Developer (the Heart of the Course) Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Chapter 2 Approaches to System Development Development Approaches at Ajax Corporation, Consolidated Concepts, and Pinnacle Manufacturing Overview The Systems Development Life Cycle Activities of Each SDLC Phase Methodologies, Models, Tools, and Techniques Two Approaches to System Development Current Trends in Development Tools to Support System Development Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically 2 3 4 4 6 10 14 16 18 27 31 31 32 32 32 33 35 36 37 37 38 45 49 53 61 63 67 67 68 68 vCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTS Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Chapter 3 The Analyst as a Project Manager Bestway Fuel Systems: Moving to an Adaptive SDLC Overview Project Management Project Initiation and Project Planning Defining the Problem Producing the Project Schedule Identifying Project Risks and Confirming Project Feasibility Staffing and Launching the Project Recap of Project Planning for RMO Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources 69 69 71 72 73 73 74 83 87 90 99 107 109 111 111 112 112 113 113 114PART 2 Systems Analysis Activities Chapter 4 Investigating System Requirements Mountain States Motor Sports Overview Analysis Activities in More Detail System Requirements Models and Modeling Stakeholders?The Source of System Requirements Techniques for Information Gathering Validating the Requirements Summary Key Terms Review Questions vi116 117 118 119 122 124 128 133 150 153 154 154Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTS Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Chapter 5 Modeling System Requirements Waiters on Call Meal-Delivery System Overview User Goals, Events, and Use Cases Use Case Descriptions Things in the Problem Domain The Entity-Relationship Diagram The Domain Model Class Diagram Where You Are Headed Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Chapter 6 The Traditional Approach to Requirements San Diego Periodicals: Following the Data Flow Overview Traditional and Object-Oriented Views of Activities/Use Cases Data Flow Diagrams Documentation of DFD Components Locations and Communication through Networks Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 160 171 176 182 187 194 195 195 196 196 197 198 201 202 203 204 205 205 221 230 234 234 234 235 235 235 237 viiCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 7 The Object-Oriented Approach to Requirements Electronics Unlimited, Inc.: Integrating the Supply Chain Overview Object-Oriented Requirements The System Activities?A Use Case/Scenario View Identifying Inputs and Outputs?The System Sequence Diagram Identifying Object Behavior?The State Machine Diagram Integrating Object-Oriented Models Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Chapter 8 Evaluating Alternatives for Requirements, Environment, and Implementation Tropic Fish Tales: Netting the Right System Overview Project Management Perspective Deciding on Scope and Level of Automation Defining the Application Deployment Environment Choosing Implementation Alternatives Contracting with Vendors Presenting the Results and Making the Decisions Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources 238 239 239 240 242 252 260 269 271 271 271 272 275 276 279280 281 281 283 284 291 297 305 307 309 309 309 310 310 311 312viiiCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTSPART 3 Systems Design Tasks Chapter 9 Elements of Systems Design Fairchild Pharmaceuticals: Finalizing Architectural Design for a Production System Overview Project Management Revisited: Execution and Control of Projects Understanding the Elements of Design Design Activities Network Design The Deployment Environment and Application Architecture Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Chapter 10 The Traditional Approach to Design Theatre Systems, Inc.: Something Old, Something New Overview The Structured Approach to Designing the Application Architecture The Automation System Boundary The System Flowchart The Structure Chart Module Algorithm Design: Pseudocode Integrating Structured Application Design with Other Design Tasks Three-Layer Design Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources 314 315 316 317 324 330 334 339 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 353 354 354 355 357 360 371 373 374 379 379 379 380 384 384 385ixCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 11 Object-Oriented Design: Principles New Capital Bank: Part 1 Overview Object-Oriented Design: Bridging from Analysis to Implementation Object-Oriented Architectural Design Fundamental Principles of Object-Oriented Detailed Design Design Classes and the Design Class Diagram Detailed Design with CRC Cards Fundamental Detailed Design Principles Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Chapter 12 Object-Oriented Design: Use Case Realizations New Capital Bank: Part 2 Overview Detailed Design of Multilayer Systems Use Case Realization with Sequence Diagrams Designing with Communication Diagrams Updating and Packaging the Design Classes Design Patterns Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources 386 387 388 388 392 404 409 416 419 423 423 424 424 425 425 427 428 429 429 430 433 454 457 463 473 473 474 475 483 484 485xCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 13 Designing Databases Nationwide Books: Designing a New Database Overview Databases and Database Management Systems Relational Databases Object-Oriented Databases Hybrid Object-Relational Database Design Data Types Distributed Databases Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Chapter 14 Designing the User Interface Interface Design at Aviation Electronics Overview Identifying and Classifying Inputs and Outputs Understanding the User Interface Guidelines for Designing User Interfaces Documenting Dialog Designs Guidelines for Designing Windows and Browser Forms Guidelines for Designing Web Sites Designing Dialogs for Rocky Mountain Outfitters Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources 486 487 488 488 490 503 510 514 516 524 524 524 525 526 526 527 528 529 529 530 532 540 544 549 552 554 562 562 563 563 564 564 567xiCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 15 Designing System Interfaces, Controls, and Security Downslope Ski Company: Designing a Secure Supplier System Interface Overview Identifying System Interfaces Designing System Inputs Designing System Outputs Designing Integrity Controls Designing Security Controls Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources 568 569 570 570 574 582 592 599 607 607 608 609 611 611 613PART 4 Implementation and Support Chapter 16 Making the System Operational Tri-State Heating Oil: Juggling Priorities to Begin Operation Overview Program Development Quality Assurance Data Conversion Installation Documentation Training and User Support Maintenance and System Enhancement Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources xii616 617 618 619 631 639 641 646 650 652 656 656 656 657 658 658 659Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 17 Current Trends in System Development Valley Regional Hospital: Measuring a Project?s Progress Overview Software Principles and Practices Adaptive Methodologies to Development Model-Driven Architecture?Generalizing Solutions Frameworks, Components, and Services Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Index 660 661 661 662 666 684 687 695 695 696 696 697 698 699 701Supplemental Web Resources Online Supplemental Chapter 1 Packages and Enterprise Resource Planning Premier Candy Corp.: The Possible Pitfalls of ERP Overview Packaged Software Enterprise Resource Planning A Closer Look at One ERP Package: SAP R/3 Summary Key Terms Review Questions Thinking Critically Experiential Exercises Case Studies Further Resources Online Appendix A Principles of Project Management Online Appendix B Project Schedules with PERT/CPM Charts Online Appendix C Calculating Net Present Value, Payback Period, and Return on Investment Online Appendix D Presenting the Results to Management Online Appendix E Guide to Using Microsoft Project Glossary xiiiCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.FEATURES Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fifth Edition, was written and developed with both instructor and student needs in mind. Here is just a sample of the unique and exciting features that help bring the field of systems analysis and design to life.Figure 1-9 Current RMO catalog cover (Fall 2010)The text uses an integrated case study of moderate complexity?Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO)?to illustrate key concepts and techniques.John and Liz had considered making a major commitment to business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce in the early 2000s. They worried about the risk of sudden and potentially explosive growth, but felt that they had to develop an online ordering system to remain competitive. At the time, in-house staff was not trained in Web technologies, so John and Liz decided to outsource development and operation of the Web site. By 2007, they realized that the Web-based ordering system was substantially underperforming against the competition for many reasons, including the following: ? ? ? ? ? Slow and cumbersome updates to online content Poor coordination with in-house customer service functions Poor coordination between Web-based ordering and supply chain management functions Poor technical support and other support by the site operator Deteriorating relations with RMO managementIn late 2006, RMO performed a detailed market analysis that showed alarming trends, including the following: ? ? ? RMO sales growth was slower than the industry average, resulting in decreasing market share. The average age of customers ordering by phone and mail was increasing, and was much higher than the industry average age of all customers. Compared to competitors, RMO?s Web-based sales were a much smaller percentage of total sales, and the average order amount was lower than the industry average.The analysis painted a disturbing picture of declining performance. Continued strong sales to older customers via traditional channels were offset by weak sales to younger customers via the Web. RMO was failing to attract and retain the customers who represented the bulk of present and future business.2010 CATALOG2010CATALOG2009?2010: Project under way. Consultant-assisted new development to integrate seamlessly product development, product acquisition, manufacturing, and inventory management in anticipation of rapid sales growth.Supply Chain Management (SCM)2010?2011: Project beginning now. New development to implement an orderprocessing and fulfillment system that seamlessly integrates with the supply chain management system to support the three order-processing requirements: mail order, phone order, and direct customer access via the Web.Customer Support System (CSS)2011: Package solution that can extract and analyze supply chain and customer support information for strategic and operational decision making and control.Strategic Information Management System (SIMS)New distributed database integrating corporate data2011: Package solution that can integrate with customer support system.Retail Store System (RSS)2012: Package intranet solution.Accounting/ Finance System2013: Package intranet solution.Human Resource System20?PART 1THE SYSTEMS ANALYSTFigure 1-13 The timetable for RMO?s application architecture planTHE CUSTOMER SUPPORT SYSTEM The RMO system development project described in this text is the customer support system (CSS). Rocky Mountain Outfitters has always prided itself on its customer orientation. One of the core competencies of RMO has been its ability to develop and maintain customer loyalty. John Blankens knew and understood customer relationship management principles long before the phrase came into common use. His pride in that knowledge has been shaken by recent sales performance and customer complaints. He?s determined to right the ship and reenergize RMO?s customer-oriented focus with a significant infusion of effort, technology, and money. The application architecture plan detailed some specific objectives for the customer support system. The system should include all functions associated with providing products for the customer, from order entry to arrival of the shipment, such as: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Customer inquiries/catalog requests Order entry Order tracking Shipping Back ordering Returns Sales analysisAn overview of the strategic systems plan for RMO is presented in Chapter 1 to place the project in context. The planned system architecture provides for rich examples?a client/server Windows-based component, as well as a Webbased, e-commerce component with direct customer interaction via the Internet.26?PART 1THE SYSTEMS ANALYSTThe new customer support system (CSS) is the system development project used throughout the text for examples and explanations. It is strategically important to RMO, and the company must integrate the new system with legacy systems and other planned systems.xiv?FEATURESCopyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.FEATURES The text describes both predictive and adaptive approaches to the SDLC, and recommends iterative development for many projects. Figure 2-1 Predictive versus adaptive approaches to the SDLC The choice of SDLC varies depending on the project Predictive SDLC Requirements well understood and well defined. Low technical risk. Adaptive SDLC Requirements and needs uncertain. High technical risk.most of this textbook?we will focus on the initial development project and not on the support projects. In other words, our primary concern is with getting the system developed and deployed the very first time. In today?s diverse development environment, many different approaches to developing systems are used, and they are based on different SDLCs. As you might suppose, some approaches have been used for a long time and have varying rates of success. In the everchanging world of information technology, new and unique approaches to building systems have emerged, which also have varying success rates. Although it is difficult to find a single, comprehensive classification system that encompasses all of the approaches, one useful technique is to categorize SDLC approaches according to whether they are more predictive or adaptive. These two classifications represent the end points of a continuum from completely predictive to completely adaptive (see Figure 2-1).Each chapter includes several Best Practice features that highlight the latest thinking on techniques and tools.predictive approach an SDLC approach that assumes the development project can be planned and organized in advance and that the new information system can be developed according to the planadaptive approach an SDLC approach that is more flexible, assuming that the project cannot be planned out completely in advance but must be modified as it progressesDetails about the RMO case are integrated directly into each chapter to make a point or to illustrate a concept?just-in-time examples?rather than isolating the case study in separate sections of the chapters.A predictive approach to the SDLC is an approach that assumes that the development project can be planned and organized in advance and that the new information system can be developed according to the plan. Predictive SDLCs are useful for building systems that are well understood and defined. For example, a company may want to convert its old, mainframe inventory system to a newer networked client/server system. In this type of project, the staff already understands the requirements very well, and no new processes need to be added. So, the project can typically be planned carefully, and the system can be built according to the specifications. At the other end of the scale, an adaptive approach to the SDLC is used when the exact requirements of a system or the users? needs are not well understood. In this situation, the project cannot be planned completely in advance. Some requirements of the system may yet need to be determined, after some preliminary development work. Developers should still be able to build the solution, but they must be flexible and adapt the project as it progresses. In practice, any project could have?and most do have?both predictive and adaptive elements. That is why Figure 2-1 shows the characteristics as end points on a sliding scale?not as two mutually exclusive categories. The predictive approaches are more traditional and were invented from the 1970s to the 1990s. Many of the newer, adaptive approaches have evolved along with the object-oriented approach and were created during the 1990s and into the twenty-first century. Let?s first look at some of the more predictive approaches and then examine some of the newer adaptive approaches.BEST PRACTICE Recognize that any specific project you work on will have some predictive and some adaptive elements.THE TRADITIONAL PREDICTIVE APPROACHES TO THE SDLC The development of a new information system requires several different, but related, activities. In predictive approaches, we first have a group of activities that plan, organize, and schedule the project, usually called project planning activities. These activities map out the overall CHAPTER 2 Approaches to System Development? :
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