Muslim Women and Gender Participation Rights in Sport

Participation of Muslim women rights in sports has been a major issue in the public domain that has triggered heated debate among various schools of thoughts. The number of Muslim women that participate in sports has been observed to be very minimal in both local and international arenas.Moreover, There is difficulty for Muslim women to participate in sport. There are various factors that limit their participation. They include lack of modest dress code, inadequate facilities, lack of role models, poor communication, , socio-economic differences, unfavourable timetabling of events, hostile environments, and inadequate information regarding such events.The local participation of Muslim women is high than international participation such as in Olympics. This is due to the fact that the factors set up locally are favorable to the athletes as compared to the factors available at the international arena. For instance, locally, the facilities, timing, communication, dress code, environment, and grouping would be appropriate. Internationally, there are higher chances of ignoring such factors.Problem StatementThe number of Muslim women that participate in sporting activities is tremendously low in a world that fosters feminism and gender equality.Significance of StudyThe study would add to the existing literature on the issue of gender participation rights regarding Muslim women and offer precise solutions to the problems. Additionally, it would fill the existing knowledge gaps regarding the operation of Muslim women.Research ObjectivesTo find out the rights and factors that limit the participation of Muslim women in sports. Also, to find solutions to the research questions and offer recommendations on the best way forward.Research QuestionsWhat is the rights condition or circumstance for Muslim women to participate in sports?Essays must be written with footnotes in the citation system.Essays are a piece of discursive writing where candidates will be expected to demonstrate the ability to write a sustained and systematic piece of original work. Essays test the ability of candidates to identify appropriate material, to analyse and comment upon the material in order to construct an argument.Essays in Islam and Human Rights offer the candidate the opportunity of engaging with a number of inquiries and investigations such as (a) theoretical issues (b) doctrinal issues (either in Islamic law and or other jurisdictions) (c) case studies (d) a focus on particular rights (e) historical issues or situations (f) textual analysis (g) analysis of the work of a particular scholar. All quotations must be clearly indicated as it is important to be able to distinguish your own work from the work of others. When using an argument or points that you have found in your reading again this must be clearly indicated by referring the authors or authors by name in the text and citing them in the footnotes.Essays that are composed mainly of quotations (even with the correct citations) will fail to obtain any marks.Essays and Citations (style of reference )BooksAuthor?s name(s), Title (in italics), then in brackets (Place of publication (the town or city), the Publisher and the date of publication. These latter details will normally be found on the reverse side of a title pageEg: Rosalyn Higgins, Problems and Process: International Law and how we use it (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).ArticlesAuthor?s name(s) title of the article, full name of the Journal, volume, number and in brackets the date, followed by the first and last page number.Eg: Christine Bell, Peace Agreements: Their Nature and Legal Status, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 100, No. 2 (2006), 373-412.Chapters in edited collectionsAuthor(s) of the Chapter, title of the chapter, then followed by ?in? name of the Editor(s) followed by (ed.), title of the book (in italics), the in brackets place of publication; publisher, date, followed by the first and last page number of the chapter.Eg. Bill Bowring, The Degradation of International Law, in John Strawson (ed.) Law after Ground Zero (London, Sydney, Portland: GlassHouse Press, 2002), 3-19.Cases of the International Court of Justice (ICJ)Cases of the ICJ are reported in four sources, the International Law Reports (ILR), the International Court of Justice Reports (ICJ Reports), on the web-site of the ICJ for the address, see above), and some are report in International Legal Materials (ILM). Contentious cases are known by name followed by the states involved (e.g. Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v the United States of America) ), and then by the stage of litigation (Provisional Measures/Preliminary Objections (Jurisdiction stage)/ Merits (the final judgment). You will then need to the citation details of where you read the case. Advisory Opinions of the ICJ are cited with the name of case as decided by the court (e,g. Reservations to the Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Advisory Opinion ? and then the appropriate citation. If you are quoting from a judgment or an opinion be sure to cite the number of the paragraph where the passage appears.United Nations Security Council ResolutionsThese should be cited as UNSC followed the number of the resolution and the tear in which the resolution was adopted in bracketse.g UNSC resolution 242 (1967).United Nations General Assembly ResolutionsThese should be cited as UNGA followed by the resolution number and in brackets the session of the General Assembly (in Roman numerals)in which the resolution was adopted followed by the year,e.g. UNGA resolution 181(II), 1947.Cross-ReferencesOnce you given the full citation you need not repeat it but you can then use of cross referencing system. If you referring to in sequence to the same source by the best form is to use Ibid ? ? of the page number is specific for a quotation then insert the page number ? thus ?ibid, 26.? If the reference is not sequential then wither use of shortened from of the citation ? eg, Higgins, Problems and Process. Once the paper is finished and you are not going to insert any further footnotes then you could use the form Supra could by the number of note where the reference first appeared ? thus ?Supra n. 21?QuotationsAll quotations must clearly marked and cited. Short quotations should in double quotations marks ??While quotations over 4 lines should be indented by 3 points ? in word this appears under the format menu under paragraph. Ensure that quotations are useful and have not been taken out context. The exact page number of a quotation is required. If the quotation is itself a quotation you must make this clear by stating that the quotation is taken from the book or article where you read it.Internet CitationsOn the whole the only internet sites that you can rely on to use are official ones, of the United Nations, the International Court of Justice or those of government. In other words they are most useful for primary sources, such as a resolution of the Security Council a judgment or opinion of the ICJ or the text of law or the statement of a government. When citing journal accessed via electronic data bases you should use the system described above for articles. For internet sites other than that you required the full details. This must include the title of the document (preceded by the author is there is one) the full internet address and in brackets the date when you last accessed it.Eg. George Bush, Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People (20 September 2001) at http://www.whitehouse,gov (September 1 2006).

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