How do Gender andyears of teaching influences teacher?s self-efficacy for

How do Gender andyears of teaching influences teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagementAbstractThe purpose of this study was to explain the influence between Gender and teacher efficacy and between Years of teaching & teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement. The study using an explanatory mixed method research design and an open-ended questionnaire, data were obtained 179 teachers from different level school in Singapore. Multilevel analyses revealed that (1) the expectation in teacher efficacy of Female teachers for student engagement is higher than Male teachers. (2) The years of teaching have more effect for teacher efficacy for student engagement. Especially mentioned was among the teachers that below and above 10 years of teaching. (3)More effective strategies can help teachers to engage students. Especially mentioned was ICT and group teaching & learning.These findings are useful to the teachers develop their teaching skills and get more achievement from their teaching. Also can help us continue to Discuss (check midcourse.net for the help you need) whether have other more factors influence the teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement?Introduction?In the classroom, student engagement is defined as the ability to encourage students to learn and master a variety of knowledge and skills. (Harlem, Roberts, Vitex, Mowen and Edgar 2007). Teacher efficacy refers to teachers for their students? learning behavior and academic performance affect the ability of subjective judgment. I believe that including teachers? sense of achievement, responsibility, expectations degrees and so on. Students who are motivated by teachers, they will be more motivated to learn in the classroom can complete more tasks, their performance will improve, Good teachers encourage students to learn is considered a strong teaching effectiveness. They believe that their ability to effectively motivate the student participation. Students who are not engaged and not interested in learning are easily discouraged and may decide to abandon their studies, For teachers, the ability to motivate students involves ?knowing what kinds of tasks support and feedback encourage students to put their effort and strive to improve?.Cousins and Walker (2010) found that a higher teaching process and the effect of self-efficacy of teachers is better than low self-efficacy of teachers, because they are more adept at using innovative ways to mobilize the enthusiasm of students, improve student participation degrees. In the teaching process, give full play to the students? autonomy.This study will explore how do gender & years of teaching affects teacher efficacy in student engagement. Help us to know how to improve teacher efficacy and support engage students put forth effort and strive to improve.Literature reviewTeacher efficacy has been very important in the teaching process variables (Cakiroglu, 2008). Teacher efficacy has also been a hot topic in recent years, in the field of psychology, teacher efficacy is defined as teachers to complete tasks and achieve teaching objectives teaching ideas and beliefs. Since 1976, the U.S. RAND Corporation researchers, institutions Omar et al (Armoretal.1976) first proposed the concept of self-efficacy of teachers, the majority of scholars agree that teacher efficacy, personal teaching efficacy (personal, teaching efficacy sense) and general teaching efficacy (general teaching efficacy) former refers to the confidence of teachers and teachers? own teaching ability; the latter refers to the role of teacher education and teaching in general beliefs. So far, a large number of domestic and international research has proven that teachers? self-efficacy of the teacher affects student participation, thus affecting the effectiveness of education and teaching.Worthy of study are different factors that affect teachers? self-efficacy .for example, the teacher?s age, gender, seniority, and so on.Student engagement is associated with teacher efficacy, studies have clearly found that teachers ?sense of self-efficacy on teachers? performance, commitment and professional impact. These are associated with achievement, responsibility, teachers? expectations of teachers. High self-efficacy of teachers have sufficient organizational capacity, and showed great patience to communicate with students.This study was designed to answer the following questions:1) Does gender influence teachers? sense of efficacy in student engagement???2) How do teachers with teaching experience of 10 years or fewer compare with those who have more than 10 years of teaching experience, in terms of their efficacy in student engagement???3) whatare some of the common strategies teachers perceive as effective for engaging their students?MethodResearch designIn this study I used an explanatory mixed methods research design. The data and the open-ended questionnaire are from teachers survey provided by NIE.As shown in Table 1, participants in this study(N = 179). Consisted of female and male teachers from different teaching levels.Table1:Variables Number of participant(n=179) %Gender Female(1) 137 77Male(2) 42 23Years of teaching Below10years 108 60Above 10 years 69 40Teachinglevelprimary 80 45secondary 75 42Junior college 8 8others 16 9Age25-30 45 2531-35 42 23Above 3586 52Data collection &Analysis of dataThe study used mixed methods, sampling technique. Which include survey data and open-ended questionnaire (n=179). As shown in Table 1, participants in this study (n=179), consist of female and male teachers.Participants? responses to each of the 4 items (Aitem1 to Aitem4) relevant teachers efficacy for student engagement. They are:Aitem1: How much can you do to motivate students who show low interest in school work?Aitem2: How much can you do to get students to believe they can do well in school work?Aitem3: How much can you do to help your students value learning?Table2:Statistical Table of t-test of Teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement for Female and Male Teachers.VariablesFemale(n=137)Male(n=42)MSDMSDtpTeacher?sEfficacy for student engagementAitem1 to 4 15.452.17 14.69 2.32 1.957 0.052Aitem14.04 0.68 3.92 0.75 0.93 0.351Aitem24.210.624.090.751.000.317Aitem34.070.693.880.721.490.137Aitem43.130.722.790.782.650.009For these four items in this student engagement subscale. Results indicate the sample of Female teachers had a Mean of 15.45(SD=2.17); the sample of Male teachers had a Mean of 14.69(SD=2.32). There is no significant Between Gender and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.For Aitem1: Results indicate the sample of Female teachers had a Mean of 4.04(SD=0.62);The sample of Male teachers had a Mean of 3.92(SD=0.75). There were no significant between Gender and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.For Aitem2: Results indicate the sample of Female teachers had a Mean of 4.21(SD=0.68);The sample of Male teachers had a Mean of 4.09(SD=0.75). There were no significant between Gender and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.For Aitem3: Results indicate the sample of Female teachers had a Mean of 4.07(SD=0.69);The sample of Male teachers had a Mean of 3.88(SD=0.72). There were no significant between Gender and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.For Aitem4: Results indicate the sample of Female teachers had a Mean of 3.13(SD=0.72);The sample of Male teachers had a Mean of 2.79(SD=0.78). There were significant at level 0.009(2-tailed)(p<0.05) between Gender and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.Table3:Statistical Table of t-test of Teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement for Years of teaching .(below 10 years &above 10 years)VariablesBelow10 yearsof teaching(n=110)Above10 yearsof teaching(n=69)MSDMSDtpTeacher?sEfficacy for student engagementAitem1 to 4 14.87 2.22 15.91 2.09 -3.11 0.002Aitem13.93 0.73 4.15 0.61 -2.19 0.03Aitem24.100.694.320.58-2.19 0.03Aitem33.950.734.140.64-1.860.06Aitem42.900.703.280.76-3.480.001For these four items in this student engagement subscale.Results indicate the sample of teachers that below10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 14.87(SD=2.22);The sample of teachers that above 10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 15.91(SD=2.09). There were significant at level 0.002(2-tailed)(p<0.05) between years of teaching and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.For Aitem1: Results indicate the sample of teachers that below10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 3.93(SD=0.73);The sample of teachers that above 10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 4.15(SD=0.61). There were significant at level 0.03(2-tailed)(p<0.05) between years of teaching and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.For Aitem2: Results indicate the sample of teachers that below10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 4.10(SD=0.69);The sample of teachers that above 10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 4.32(SD=0.58). There were significant at level 0.03 (2-tailed)(p<0.05) between years of teaching and teachers? efficacy for student?s engagement.For Aitem3: Results indicate the sample of teachers that below10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 3.95(SD=0.73);The sample of teachers that above 10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 4.14(SD=0.64). There were significant at level 0.06(2-tailed)(p<0.05) between years of teaching and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.For Aitem4: Results indicate the sample of teachers that below10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 2.90(SD=0.70);The sample of teachers that above 10 years of teaching, had a Mean of 3.28(SD=0.76). There were significant at level 0.001(2-tailed)(p<0.05) between years of teaching and teachers? efficacy for student engagement.Table4: Samples coding of a open-ended responses of Female and Male:Open-endedquestionnaire Female MaleTeacher?sEfficacy for student engagement:Briefly describe a student engagement strategy that you found effective. Why do you think it is effective?Teacher4ICT. It engages students that would otherwise be disinterested. Teacher9Using ICT Tools to get pupils to engage in collaborative learning,Teacher28Use of ICT: students use iPad to share ideas on problem solving and present to one anotherTeacher42Using videos, songs, body movements and IT engages the students. It is effective because it is partly due to keeping with 21st century teaching tools. It is multi-sensory. Children has multiple intelligences.Teacher33Collaborative and co operative learning where students work in groups and a leader is chosen and the roles are assigned.later they take a gallery walk in the classroom where they go and check other groups and finally each group presents their work in class.Teacher17Group Discuss (check midcourse.net for the help you need)ion (using cooperative strategies). Students will then need to present to the class what they have Discuss (check midcourse.net for the help you need)ed. This will actually put them on task.Teacher103Small group teaching and differentiated teaching are effective strategies to engage students as students receive personal and focus teaching with teachers.Teacher43Students can be engaged in learning using collaborative strategy where they leverage on each other to learn a subject/topic actively as a group. It is effective as all students can participate no matter how little the knowledge of the topic they have at first and give them a sense of achievement when doing it as a group.For this sample coding of an open-ended responses Table. The data collection was designed to gather information to answer the Third research question guiding this study. The researcher with online system conducted a questionnaire. The participants also were the researchers. The profile of these teachers refers to Table1.Findings&Discuss (check midcourse.net for the help you need)ion of fingdings:After the data collection for this study, we got more findings for my three research questions. Below are my analyze and findings, according to different questions.1) Does gender influence teachers? sense of efficacy in student engagement???In Table 2, quantitative data were analyzed the Weather Gender influence teacher?s sense of efficacy in student engagement.First, The findings indicated The Female teachers are more positive for their efficacy in student engagement than Male teachers. Although it was no more significant. Between Gender of teachers for student engagement (p=0. 05), we also can find the Female teachers had higher efficacy in student engagement.Second, From Aitem1 to Aitem3, the Mean of Female teachers were higher than Male teachers( Female SD0.05), we also can find the Female teachers had higher efficacy in student engagement.The special mentioned were Aitem4. There were significant at level 0.009(2-tailed)(p<0.05) between Gender and teachers? efficacy for student engagement. The theme of Aitem4 was: How much can you assist families in helping their children do well in school? It was relevantthe responsibility and confidence of the teachers? efficacy for students engagement. This finding indicated teachers had more confidence and higher responsibility to engage their student do well in school. After comparing the Mean of Female and Male teachers, I also found Female teachers had higher confidence in their self-efficacy than Male teachers.Overall analysis, Gender influence teacher?s sense of efficacy in student engagement. But the influence was not very high.2) How do teachers with teaching experience of 10 years or fewer compare with those who have more than 10 years of teaching experience, in terms of their efficacy in student engagement???In Table 3, quantitative data were analyzed how the years of teaching influence teacher?s sense of efficacy in student engagement.First, The findings indicated the years of teaching had more influence for the teachers? efficacy in student engagement. There were significant at level 0.002(2-tailed p<0.05).The teachers who have more than 10 years of teaching experience were more positive for their efficacy in student engagement than teachers who have below 10 years of teaching experience.Second, Aitem1 to Aitem2 had same significant at level 0.03(2-tailed p<0.05) . Compare the Mean between these two items and two group teachers. We found The Mean of theteachers who have more than 10 years of teaching experience were more positive for their efficacy in student engagement than teachers who have below 10 years of teaching experience.Aitem1: How much can you do to motivate students who show low interest in school work?Aitem2: How much can you do to get students to believe they can do well in school work?These two items all relevant to the teacher?s expectation for students. The findings indicated the teacher?s expectation of the teachers who have more than 10 years of teaching was higher than the teachers who have below 10 years of teaching experience. The higher expectation got the higher teachers efficacy for student engagement.Third, There was no significant at level 0.06(2-tailed) between years of teaching and teachers? efficacy for student engagement. But after comparing the Mean between two groups of teachers, we also can find theteachers who have more than 10 years of teaching experience were more positive for their efficacy in student engagement than teachers who have below 10 years of teaching experience.Aitem3 was ?How much can you do to help your students value learning? ? It?s relevant the teacher?s achievement. This finding indicated the teacher?s achievement had light influenced by years of teaching for the two groups of teachers.The special mentioned were Aitem4.Aitem4 was: How much can you assist families in helping their children do well in school? It was relevantthe responsibility and confidence of the teachers? efficacy for student engagement.There were significant at level 0.001(2-tailed)(p<0.05) between years of teaching and teachers? efficacy for student engagement. This finding indicated teachers had more confidence and higher responsibility can get higher efficacy to engage their student do well in school.After comparing the Mean & SD. The finding is the teachers who have more than 10 years of teaching had higher efficacy than the teachers who have below 10 years of teaching experience,Overall analysis, Teachers who teaching experience of 10 years had higher efficacy for student engagement than the teachers who below 10 years of teaching experience.3) What are some of the common strategies teachers perceive as effective for engaging their students??After I am done the samples coding of an open-ended responses for Female and Male teacher. I found More teachers agreed ICT skills and group teaching & learning were the common strategies perceive for engaging their students.Obviously, ICT skills can help teachers get more confidence to engage the students in their learning. More achievement they had, more self-efficacy would put to the lesson and activities. Students had more interested in their study. Students? engagement improves autotelic.The purpose of this study was to examine:1) Does gender influence teachers? sense of efficacy in student engagement???2) How do teachers with teaching experience of 10 years or fewer compare with those who have more than 10 years of teaching experience, in terms of their efficacy in student engagement???3) What are some of the common strategies teachers perceive as effective for engaging their students??First of all, our analyses confirm that :(1) Gender had a little influence for teachers? sense of efficacy in student engagement. Actually, After we compare female and male teachers and analysis for four items that relevant teacher?s confidence, responsibility, achievement, expectation, I also considered that Female teachers had higher efficacy for student engagement, especially the confidence about build a bridge among the family-student-school. Guiding the student do well in school.This difference may be related to social and cultural background, social expectations of people of different sex acts arising from the impact of their own personal expectations. Specializes in the field of men focused on management, construction, computers and so on. Teachers are a special job, it is recognized by many social and cultural occupations suitable for women. People think women have the patience, tolerance and motherhood and other features, can better communicate to students and help students grow. Therefore, under the influence of social and cultural expectations of the role of female teachers, female teachers? confidence in their teaching ability is generally enhancedIn addition, female teachers to understand the strong ability to interact with students, this ability enables them to understand the student, in accordance with the student?s interests and hobbies be individualized, and easy to win the trust of the student, the student?s learning, participation and learning the effect is often better, student achievement will undoubtedly enhance recognition and self-teaching efficacy of female teachers.Second of all, Year of teaching was another important factor in teacher efficacy for student engagement(2-tailed p <0.002 Table3). For the further analysis , I found the teachers above ten years teaching had higher efficacy than the teachers who was under 10 years of teaching experience . We can do this kind of analysis, less than 10 years teaching experience in teacher may have accumulated some experience, but not enough rich, unexpected problems arise in education and teaching can not be handy.Third, Collaborative learning can benefit more from mixed-ability groups. Although there is no consensus among teachers on whether ability grouping provides a better learning environment for all students. But after analysis the open-ended questionnaire, we also can consider, before the group work begins, Teacher?s expectation was covered whole class, It was difficult to control . Students will probably feel less discomfort with the idea of a class grade, and will feel peer pressure to contribute and work toward the common goal. Most students, indeed, will not appear foolish or irresponsible to their classmates. The teacher was a manager and can put different expectation to different group. The teacher?s self-efficacy will be achieved higher level.Limitations of the StudyThe findings of the study are important given the probability that we can continue to explore how do other more factors influence teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement. However, there are some limitations in the study, these findings of limitations should be considered in the interpretation and generalization.First, The proportion for the Gender of teachers was not balanced. (Female n=137;Male n= 42); Second, The data collection from the open-ended questionnaire was not enough Credibility. Because of the participants didn?t have enough time to think about the questions ; Third, Whether had the family environment and family issues interfering between the factors and teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement?I attempted to analysis and get the result to help the researchers continue to explore. These limitations should be considered when analyzing the results of quantitative research and qualitative interpretation of the findings. .ConclusionIn summaries, Years of teaching had a higher influence of teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement than the influence from Gender.Actually, There had other factors such as the abilities of teachers or the characters of teachers, also can influence the teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement.First, teacher?s self- efficacy and student?s engagement, there was significant lightly positive correlation with Female teachers. Higher expectation would relevant higher teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement.Second, There was a significant higher positive correlation between years of teaching and teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement. The teacherswith teaching experience of 10 years or less had a lower efficacy with those who have more than 10 years of teaching experience, in terms of their efficacy in student engagement.Actually, There had other factors such as the abilities of teachers or the characters of teachers also can influence the teacher?s self-efficacy for student engagement. We can continue to explore and find the best way to improve.ReferencesOrder for your custom written PAPER now! Category: Best Essay Writing Services-UK

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